In 1993, India and China signed an agreement to reduce tensions along their border and respect the LAC. Three years later, in 1996, the two countries agreed to demarcate the LAC and take confidence-building measures. Signed in New Delhi on 29 November 1996, available in the Chinese MTE contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi. Copies and summaries in English of the agreement are also available in the United Nations Peacemakers Database and the University of Edinburgh`s PA-X Peace Agreement Database. According to the UN Peacemaker website, the agreement „allows for military disclosure when the parties conduct border exercises and the reduction of troop levels in border areas. It also allows parties to observe and inspect troop movements in any other area by invitation. In this agreement, both sides agreed to reduce or limit their forces in the mutually agreed geographical areas along the LAC. It establishes the main categories of weapons to be reduced or limited: „main battle tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, guns (including howitzers) of a caliber of 75 mm or more, mortars of a caliber of 120 mm or more, surface-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles and any other jointly agreed weapons system”. (Art. 3.) It also states that „each party opens fire, causes biodegradation, uses hazardous chemicals, carries out explosions or pursues with rifles or explosives within a radius of two kilometers from the line of actual control.” (Art.

6.) The term „real line of control” was reportedly used by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in a 1959 note to Indian Premier Jawaharlal Nehru. [2] The demarcation existed as an informal armistice line between India and China after the Sino-Indian War from 1962 to 1993, when its existence was officially accepted as an „effective line of control” in a bilateral agreement. [5] India`s understanding of the 1959 line went through Haji Langar, Shamal Lungpa and Kongka La (the red line on the map). [18] After the Tulung La incident, the China Task Force in Delhi set patrol limits that India would respect in order to enforce its alignment with the LAC – borders that are still followed today. The problem is that India and China do not agree everywhere on the direction of LAC. Differences in perception, particularly at 13 points in the western, central and eastern border areas, often lead to so-called „face-to-face” when patrols meet in these grey areas, which lie between the different orientations. Some of these areas are Chumar, Demchok and the northern shore of Pangong Lake in the western sector, Barahoti in the intermediate sector and Sumdorong Chu in the east. .

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